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    1. #1

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      Oct 2010

      Charles Russell Rhines - South Dakota Death Row

      Donnivan Schaeffer

      Summary of Offense:

      Rhines was convicted of the 1992 torture murder of Donnivan Schaefer in the course of a Rapid City donut shop burglary. He was tried and convicted, and sentenced to death, before a Pennington County jury in 1993. The South Dakota Supreme Court affirmed the conviction in 1996. Rhines sought state post-conviction habeas corpus relief in late 1996.

      Habeas corpus is a procedure where a defendant seeks to overturn his criminal conviction because of allegations that his constitutional rights have been violated at trial. The South Dakota Circuit Court denied habeas corpus to Rhines in 1998, and the South Dakota Supreme Court affirmed this denial on February 9, 2000. Thereafter, Rhines sought habeas corpus relief in the United States District Court. That court held that because certain issues were never raised before the State courts, Rhines could return to State court and raise certain issues there.

      The State appealed the order allowing return to State court without dismissal of the federal petition to the Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. The Eighth Circuit agreed with the State, and said Rhines will have to either pursue the issues he has already raised in the State courts, or dismiss the present habeas case in federal court and return to State court. If he dismisses the present federal habeas petition, he might not be permitted to return a second time to federal court. Rhines’ lawyers asked the United States Supreme Court to review his case, and their request was granted in June 2004. The United States Supreme Court decided that the Court could stay the petition under the appropriate circumstances in a decision dated March 30, 2005.

      When the matter came back before the United States District Court, that Court re-instituted its stay of the federal proceeding and allowed Rhines to pursue further relief before the state courts. At the present time, the matter is pending before the Circuit Court for the Seventh Judicial Circuit on Rhines’s second state habeas petition. That court has required the State to file a return, and the matter is pending before the court await the State’s return.

    2. #2
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      Oct 2010
      Inmate Personal Information

      Race: White
      Gender: Male

      Crime and Trial Information

      * County of conviction: Pennington
      * Number of counts: One
      * Race of Victims: White
      * Gender of Victims: Male
      * Date of crime: 03/08/1992
      * Date of Sentencing: 01/29/1993

      Legal Status

      Current proceedings: habeas
      petition stayed in district
      court pending exhaustion of
      state habeas claims


      Charles Rogers
      Neil Fulton
      Jana Miner

      Court Opinions

      State v. Rhines, 548 N.W.2d 415 (S.D.) (affirming
      conviction and sentence), cert. denied, 519 U.S. 1013
      (1996); Rhines v. Weber, 608 N.W.2d 303 (S.D. 2000)
      (affirming denial of state habeas corpus); Rhines v.
      Weber, 2002 WL 33969082 (D.S.D. July 3, 2002) (holding
      in abeyance writ of habeas corpus pending exhaustion of
      claims in state court); Rhines v. Weber, 346 F.3d 799 (8th
      Cir. 2003) (vacating district court's order and remanding
      to district court); Rhines v. Weber, 542 U.S. 936 (2004)
      (granting certiorari); Rhines v. Weber, 544 U.S. 269
      (2005) (vacating and remanding to 8th circuit); Rhines v.
      Weber, 409 F.3d 982 (8th Cir. 2005) (remanding to

      Legal Issues

      1. whether the South Dakota Supreme Court's affirmance of Mr. Rhines' death sentence is valid despite its holding that the "depravity of mind" aggravating circumstance is unconstitutional
      2. whether trial counsels' investigation and presentation of mitigating evidence was adequate
      3. whether the Miranda warnings given to Mr. Rhines before his incriminating statements to police were adequate

    3. #3
      Heidi's Avatar
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      Oct 2010
      Judge sets November trial for Charles Rhines' appeal of his death sentence for 1992 murder

      A judge scheduled a November trial on a convicted murderer's request to reopen his death-penalty case.

      Charles Rhines has filed a petition claiming that South Dakota's death penalty law is unconstitutional.

      He says prosecutors violated his rights, and that his defense attorney made mistakes when Rhines was being sentenced.

      Rhines was convicted of murder and sentenced to death for the March 1992 stabbing death of Donnivan Schaeffer at a Rapid City doughnut shop. The 22-year-old Schaeffer worked at the shop and interrupted Rhines during a burglary.

      Donnivan Schaeffer's parents, Ed and Peggy Schaeffer, attended a hearing Tuesday at which Circuit Judge Thomas Trimble set a Nov. 26 trial date.

      Peggy Schaeffer tells the Rapid City Journal (http://bit.ly/Q1BXZL ) the couple doesn't want to have to go through another sentencing trial.

      A uninformed opponent is a dangerous opponent.

    4. #4
      MRBAM's Avatar
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      Sep 2011
      Capital Region NY
      Judge upholds SD man's conviction, death sentence

      PIERRE, S.D. (AP) — A circuit judge has upheld the conviction and death sentence of Charles Russell Rhines for the 1992 slaying of a man during the burglary of a Rapid City doughnut shop, South Dakota Attorney General Marty Jackley said Wednesday.

      Rhines was convicted in 1993 fatally stabbing 22-year-old Donnivan Schaeffer. Authorities contend that Schaeffer, a part-time employee at the doughnut shop, surprised Rhines during the March 1992 burglary.

      The South Dakota Supreme Court and the U.S. Supreme Court upheld Rhines' conviction in 1996, but Rhines filed secondary appeals that were tied up in state and federal courts.

      In the secondary appeal filed in state court, Rhines argued South Dakota's death penalty law was unconstitutional. He also contended that prosecutors violated his rights, that the judge at his trial improperly dismissed a lawyer and that his defense layer was ineffective during his sentencing.

      Jackley said the decision by Circuit Judge Thomas L. Trimble of Rapid City to uphold Rhines' conviction can still be reviewed on appeal by the South Dakota Supreme Court and federal courts.

      "The Schaeffer family has waited more than 20 years for justice in their son's case," Jackley said in a written statement. "The trial court's ruling is an important step in holding Rhines accountable for his horrific actions to the Schaeffers and the community."

      Neil Fulton, who is representing Rhines as federal public defender for the Dakotas, said Wednesday he had not yet seen Trimble's ruling.

      "We need to review the decision and determine whether we want to pursue any appeal in state court," Fulton said.

      Fulton said Rhines still has a challenge pending in federal court that can proceed once he exhausts his claims in state court.

      "We'll need to discuss this with Mr. Rhines and make a decision on how to proceed," Fulton said.


    5. #5
      Heidi's Avatar
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      Oct 2010
      Court hears execution testimony in Rhines case

      More than 20 years after he stabbed and killed 22-year-old Donnivan Schaeffer, Charles Russell Rhines was back Tuesday in a Pennington County Courthouse to hear recorded testimony about South Dakota’s single drug execution protocol.

      Sitting a few chairs away from Rhines were Schaeffer’s parents, Ed and Peggy Schaeffer. A small group of supporters that included Dottie Poage sat with the Schaeffers for part of the day.

      Like the Schaeffers, Poage waits for the day when Briley Piper exhausts his appeals and faces execution for the 2001 murder of her son, Chester Allan Poage.

      Rhines was robbing a west Main Street doughnut shop when Donnivan Schaeffer walked in on him.

      Rhines is nearing the end of his appeals. Circuit Judge Thomas Trimble affirmed his conviction and death sentence in September.

      All that’s left is Rhines' challenge of the constitutionality of South Dakota’s one-drug execution protocol.

      Tuesday was devoted to the playing of pre-recorded depositions of health care experts.

      Rhines had the option of having the judge review the depositions outside his presence or attending the hearing. He opted to attend the hearing. He has been serving his sentence on death row in Sioux Falls.

      Once Trimble rules on the legality of the state’s execution method, Rhines can appeal his decision to the South Dakota Supreme Court and the U.S. Supreme Court.

      A uninformed opponent is a dangerous opponent.

    6. #6
      Heidi's Avatar
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      Oct 2010
      Circuit Court rejects appeal of death row inmate Charles Rhines

      A Circuit Court in Pennington County rejected a constitutional challenge from death row inmate Charles Rhines on South Dakota's method of execution protocol, according to a news release from the attorney general's office.

      Rhines is on death row for the 1992 murder of Donnivan Schaeffer in Rapid City.

      Rhines filed a habeas corpus action claiming that South Dakota’s protocol violated constitutional prohibitions against cruel and unusual punishment. Rhines alleged that he faced a substantial risk of pain because the protocol did not assure that the lethal drug would be sufficiently potent or properly administered.

      Judge Trimble of the Seventh Circuit Court found that South Dakota’s protocol, which is modeled on one approved by the United States Supreme Court, does not pose a risk of unconstitutional pain and suffering.

      “Lethal injection is the most humane manner of implementing the death penalty,” the Court wrote in its opinion. The Court concluded that “South Dakota’s lethal injection protocol is substantially similar to, and in many respects more protective than” the protocol approved by the United States Supreme Court and, therefore, is “constitutional on its face.”

      South Dakota currently uses a single dose of pentobarbital to carry out executions. This protocol was used in the October 2012 executions of Donald Moeller and Eric Robert that were witnessed by the media.

      “The Court’s decision affirms that the state has taken precaution in drafting and implementing its lethal injection protocol to assure that it meets constitutional requirements,” Attorney General Marty Yackley said in a news release. “Today’s decision is an important step forward in carrying out the jury and court’s decision and holding Charles Rhines accountable for his horrific actions from over 20 years ago.”

      Rhines can appeal Judge Trimble’s decision to the South Dakota Supreme Court and then to the federal courts.

      A uninformed opponent is a dangerous opponent.

    7. #7
      Heidi's Avatar
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      Oct 2010
      South Dakota Supreme Court denies Charles Rhines' request for further death penalty appeals

      Attorney General Marty Jackley says that the South Dakota Supreme Court has denied Charles Russell Rhines’ request for further death penalty appeals.

      Rhines was sentenced to death for the 1992 fatal stabbing of 22-year-old Donnivan Schaeffer during the burglary of a doughnut shop in Rapid City. He has argued that the state’s one-drug protocol violates constitutional prohibitions against cruel and unusual punishment.

      In February, 7th Circuit Court Judge Thomas Trimble ruled that the method not pose a risk of unconstitutional pain and suffering. Rhines appealed that ruling.

      Jackley says that the Schaeffer family has waited more than 20 years for justice in their son’s case, and the justices’ order marks an important step in holding Rhines accountable.

      A uninformed opponent is a dangerous opponent.

    8. #8
      Moh's Avatar
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      Oct 2010
      U.S. Supreme Court rejects appeal for death row inmate Charles Rhines

      Attorney General Marty Jackley announced Tuesday that the United States Supreme Court has rejected Charles Rhines’ appeal of state court orders of his first degree murder conviction and capital sentence.

      Rhines was convicted in the stabbing death of 22-year-old Donnivan Schaeffer during a burglary of a Rapid City donut shop on March 8, 1992.

      “The United States Supreme Court’s order today affirms that South Dakota has taken proper precautions in drafting and implementing its death penalty statutes to assure that they meet constitutional requirements," Jackley said in a news release. "Donnivan Schaeffer’s family has waited 22 years in their search for justice."

      Rhines’ conviction and death sentence was affirmed by the South Dakota Supreme Court in 1996.

      Rhines then challenged his conviction through a federal habeas corpus petition. The federal court sent some of Rhines’ claims to the state court for review and stayed other federal claims pending the state’s review.

      In state court, Rhines again challenged his conviction, the state’s death penalty statutes, and the state’s execution protocol. Rhines claimed that his case was improperly designated a capital murder case, and alleged that he would face a substantial risk of pain because South Dakota’s execution protocol did not assure that the lethal drug would be sufficiently potent or properly administered.

      Judge Thomas L. Trimble of the Seventh Judicial Circuit Court, Pennington County, denied Rhines’ habeas corpus challenges. Judge Trimble found that Rhines’ case met criteria for the imposition of capital punishment according to standards approved by the United States Supreme Court, and further found that South Dakota’s protocol does not pose a risk of unconstitutional pain and suffering.

      “Lethal injection is the most humane manner of implementing the death penalty,” Judge Trimble wrote in his opinion.

      Judge Trimble found that “South Dakota’s lethal injection protocol is substantially similar to, and in many respects more protective than” the protocol approved by the United States Supreme Court and, therefore, is “constitutional on its face.”

      The South Dakota Supreme Court affirmed Judge Trimble’s ruling

      Rhines’ petition to the United States Supreme Court further challenged South Dakota’s statutory criteria for selecting cases for capital punishment.

      The United States Supreme Court refused even to hear Rhines claim that South Dakota’s death penalty statute did not protect defendants from being arbitrarily selected for capital punishment.

      Rhines’ federal habeas corpus claims are currently pending before the federal trial court. Rhines has rights to appeal any adverse decision of that court through the federal system.


    9. #9
      Moh's Avatar
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      Oct 2010
      On February 22, 2000, Rhines filed a habeas petition in Federal District Court.


    10. #10
      Heidi's Avatar
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      Oct 2010
      Charles Rhines: Death undeserved, murderer contends

      Charles Rhines doesn't think he deserves the death penalty.

      He felt that way in 1993, when a jury sentenced him to death by lethal injection, and he feels that way today.

      Rhines doesn't deny the facts.

      That he stabbed Donnivan Schaeffer to death in a Rapid City doughnut shop.

      That's he's a sociopath.

      But Rhines, 57, and the state's longest-serving death row inmate, insists he's no worse than dozens of other killers, and in more than 100 page of correspondence with the Argus Leader, he said he�s come to understand the implications of his crime.

      The McLaughlin native is convinced revenge, not justice, is behind his death sentence. In a letter this month, he listed 17 other murderers in South Dakota for whom no death sentence was sought.

      "It's not like it was a major crime," Rhines wrote last May. "I pointed out to the police at the time that a dozen murders had occurred in Rapid City over the previous year (1991-92), mostly Native Americans killing Native Americans, but they count, too, don't they?"

      And he says his death won't bring closure to his victim's family.

      'People who've done ... worse things'

      His arguments align closely with the positions of those who wish to abolish the death penalty in South Dakota, including the sponsor of this year's bill, Rep. Steve Hickey of Sioux Falls.

      Hickey's bill would not overturn the sentence for Rhines or the 2 other men on death row, but the pastor agrees with the inmate's view on the use of capital punishment.

      "There are a lot of people in the penitentiary who've done worse things than him," Hickey said. "It's certainly not the case that we're only pursuing the death penalty for the worst of the worst."

      Others are not convinced.

      The picture Rhines paints of himself through the letters - a young man failed by his schools, his family and the institutions meant to mold him - stands in stark contrast to the assessments of those closest to the case, and those who've waited more than 2 decades for justice.

      Peggy Schaeffer, the mother of Donnivan Schaeffer, read most of Rhines letters in December.

      "Nothing in there changes anything for me," Peggy Schaeffer said. "It's the same kind of thing he's been saying for years."

      Master manipulator, former warden says

      Doug Weber, the former state prison warden who carried out all 3 of the state's recent executions, oversaw Rhines for years. The former warden sees the inmate as a master manipulator whose attitude and behavior align with the jury's sentence.

      "I don't think, if he'd been serving a life sentence, that he'd have been out of administrative segregation," Weber said. "He's an extremely intelligent, but an extremely dangerous individual."

      Heather Shepard, who was 16 years old when Rhines threatened to kill her to stop her from revealing what she knew about the unsolved murder, puts it more bluntly.

      "He should have been dead 15 years ago," she said. "Justice has not been swift."

      Burst of laughter after the murder

      The Rhines case might seem like a robbery gone wrong, but the people involved see it as much more than that - especially given his behavior after the crime.

      Steve Allender, now the Rapid City Police Chief, spent months tracking the killer before Rhines was captured in Seattle.

      "It was evil. I've been in this business for 30 years, and the only nightmare I've ever had about police work was about him," Allender said. "I feared him to a great extent."

      Donnivan Schaeffer was working as a courier March 8, 1992. He was picking up supplies from Dig 'Em Donuts as Rhines, a former shop employee, was rooting though an office desk for cash.

      Schaeffer walked into the office, and Rhines sprung upon him with a hunting knife, stabbing him twice.

      The young man pleaded, begging Rhines to take him to the hospital as he was lead into a storeroom and sat on a wooden pallet.

      "'Yeah, right, Donnivan. I'm going to call you an ambulance. You bet,'" Allender recalls Rhines saying.

      Instead, the 2-time felon leaned his victim forward on the pallet, applied the hunting knife to the back of his neck and shoved it into his skull.

      His body was seen by Sam Harter, Rhines' roommate. Rhines threatened to kill Harter's family if he turned him in. And the 2 attended Schaeffer's funeral together.

      After his capture in King County, Wash., Allender took Rhines' confession. The memory is haunting.

      "(Rhines) was talking very calmly, but then he busted out this awful laugh that was three times as loud as his normal voice," Allender said.

      Allender thinks that burst of laughter, along with the cold, calculating description, played a part in the jury's decision to hand Rhines a death sentence. The confession tape had the jury on the edge of their seats, he said.

      "That had a huge impact," Allender said.

      'Shouldn't have gotten death ... in the first place'

      Rhines also thinks that laugh swayed the jury.

      It was a single "haw," he writes. In the years since the trial, he claims police and prosecutors have unfairly called him out for "bursting into laughter," for being "sexual predator" and for being more dangerous than he actually is.

      Rhines, who is gay, claims his sexual orientation concerned the jurors - enough so that they submitted 9 questions to Judge John Konenkamp, who now is a justice on the South Dakota Supreme Court. At least 3 of the questions related to Rhines' sexuality and how that would play out in jail: "Will Mr. Rhines be allowed to have a cellmate or will he be jailed alone?"

      The questions went unanswered. Rhines didn't even know they had been asked until after the verdict.

      "It's pretty obvious they were contemplating my sexuality in their deliberations after they had promised not to do so, and both the prosecutor and judge realized that when they saw the list," Rhines wrote.

      The inmate's brother, Karl Rhines of Harrisburg, agrees.

      "If (the judge) had answered those questions, it would have made a difference," Karl Rhines said.

      Karl Rhines doesn't dispute that his younger brother committed a horrible murder and deserves punishment. Before his brother�s crime, he was a supporter of the death penalty.

      "I didn't know what I know now: It's not a deterrent, it doesn't help the victim's family, and the cost factor is outrageous," Karl Rhines said.

      Monotonous prison life, waiting for death

      Charles Rhines has plenty of time to ruminate on the trial in his cell, which is 13 1/2 long by 6 1/2 feet wide. But he mostly focuses on his routine.

      "How have I passed the days, months, years? One day at a time, mostly on 'automatic' and not thinking about the death penalty. You just cannot dwell on that or it becomes everything to you," he wrote. "Dwelling on anything for too long will make you nuts."

      Unlike most states that use capital punishment, South Dakota does not have a dedicated death row. Instead, Rhines and the 2 other men sentenced to die - Briley Piper and Rodney Berget - live in an administrative segregation wing with about 20 other high-risk inmates.

      Like the others in administrative segregation, Rhines is on lock-down for 23 hours a day, with an hour of recreation time.

      Unlike the others, death row inmates are not allowed physical contact with anyone, aside from Department of Corrections staff, lawyers and approved clergy members. Even family members speak to them through glass, and the inmate's hands and feet remain bound any time they leave their cell.

      Most inmates in Charles Rhines' wing have cellmates, but he does not.

      During recreation time, Charles Rhines stands in 1 of 2 mesh cages, 8 feet wide by 20 feet long, inside the segregation wing. Another inmate will stand next to him, giving him a chance at conversation. For several years, he's shared recreation time with Briley Piper. Before that, he shared rec time with Moeller.

      He also can yell at the others in the wing through his cell door.

      The days start early, with a knock at the door delivering breakfast about 6:30 a.m. After the "reasonably edible" meal, he drinks coffee and watches CNN on his 15-inch flat-screen television.

      "After walk-throughs I settle into the day's routine, depending on what I want to do ... crawl back into bed and take a nap or do some bead work, or watch a little TV," he wrote.

      Lunch arrives at 10:30 a.m., and rec time often follows, which involves being handcuffed at the hands and feet and led from his cell to the cages. After putting on about 20 pounds in 6 months, he wrote, he's begun working out again.

      "An hour of calisthenics 3 times a week is my limit - I ain't a kid anymore," he wrote.

      After rec time comes a trip, again in restraints, to a locked shower stall.

      For the rest of the day, he watches television, does bead-work crafts, crossword puzzles or reads. After 20 years, he writes, "I've read everything worth reading" from the penitentiary library.

      By 11 p.m. or midnight, he's back in bed.

      Changed perspective about enormity of crime

      The daily routine helps him avoid despair.

      But more than 2 decades have given him time to reflect on his crime and how he came to commit it.

      More than once in his letters, Charles Rhines refers to the suicide case of Jamey Rodemeyer, a bisexual teenager from Buffalo, N.Y., who committed suicide after being bullied online.

      Seeing Rodemeyer's mother on cable news finally showed him the effects of his crime.

      "It finally hit me between the eyes what I had done to Peggy Schaeffer. Just at the cusp of her beloved child becoming an independent person, a responsible adult with a family and friends surrounding him and his mother waiting expectantly for grandchildren to spoil, having all that snatched away for almost no reason at all and the hole it has had to have left in her heart," he wrote. "Prosecutors talk of closure, but that wound will never close, no matter how long it is there."

      Rhines says he should have had help as child

      Rhines, the 4th and youngest child, said he faced his own struggles growing up, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. He said he needed a child psychologist, but his mother was too proud and didn't want him to have a stigma.

      "I often heard my mother tell me that I needed to learn to 'swallow my pride,' but you know, I never saw her do that," Charles Rhines wrote.

      Peggy Schaeffer wasn't impressed by Rhines' words of remorse.

      "If he were sorry, he could have said it a long time ago," Schaeffer said. "Now, 20 years later, he's sorry? Uh-uh."

      Rhines wasn't surprised by Schaeffer's reaction. In a January letter, the inmate attached a Dennis the Menace cartoon with the caption "I guess saying I'm sorry over and over ... isn't helping?"

      "The only change she wants to see from me is to see me change from living to dead," he said.

      Different ways of coping with the wait for death

      Life on death row becomes a grind, Charles Rhines said.

      Friends lose touch.

      "People move on with their lives while we sit here and (molder)," he wrote. "One by one his 'buds' dropped out of the picture, until he is left with, as I am, family only," he wrote.

      Piper turned to religion, and a nun visits weekly, he wrote.

      Eric Robert, on the other hand, came in frustrated.

      Life on death row weighed heavily on the Wisconsin man, who was put to death less than 2 years after he murdered correctional officer Ronald "R.J." Johnson in a failed 2011 escape attempt.

      "Eric Robert just couldn't handle the conditions in Ad. Seg. He could not figure out how we put up with this place," he wrote.

      Robert did not appeal his sentence. Donald Moeller was put to death a few weeks later, having given up his appeals after more than 20 years on death row. Elijah Page also ended his appeals and faced execution.

      Robert Leroy Anderson, sentenced to die for the murders of 2 women, hanged himself before the state could carry out his sentence.

      Inmates sentenced to death treated differently

      Condemned inmates are not allowed physical contact with others, by law, but other restrictions evolved over time as a means of respecting the designation given to death row inmates by a jury.

      "The men who are on death row have been deemed by the law, by the courts and by society - specifically by the jurors - as being the most dangerous human beings that we could come in contact with," Weber, the former warden, said.

      Darin Young, who succeeded Weber last year as penitentiary warden, said it's a balance with the risk.

      "We treat them very professionally, but we treat them appropriately based on the risk they pose," Young said.

      'Institutional vengeance,' to death penalty foe

      The disparity in treatment is troublesome for Rep. Hickey. Prosecutors decide to seek a death sentence based on a number of factors that could apply to any number of cases.

      Those who receive the death penalty are stuck on death row. Those who do not have the chance to live a less-restricted life behind bars with outdoor recreation, job and educational opportunities and the chance to visit friends and family on a regular basis.

      Donald Moeller raped and killed 9-year-old Rebecca O'Connell in 1990 and was sentenced to death. Kelly Van Engelenhoven raped and killed 11-year-old Katie Clarey the following year and was sentenced to life in prison after Clarey's family persuaded prosecutors not to seek a death sentence.

      That doesn't seem like justice to Hickey, and he said he doesn't think it puts the state on firm moral footing.

      "Right now, we're sending the message that if you're mad enough at someone, you can kill them," Hickey said. "Basically, it's institutional vengeance."

      Honoring the victim, to death penalty backers

      Peggy Schaeffer disagrees.

      She and Dottie Poage, the mother of Piper's victim, sometimes run into one another when bills such as Hickey's show up in Pierre. They talk about their losses, about the wrenching pain of knowing how different their lives have become through the actions of another person.

      "We don't get together often, but when we do, we're talking," Peggy Schaeffer said.

      Karl Rhines thinks about Dottie Poage from time to time, as well. What he thinks about is a photo she held up for cameras after the execution of Elijah Page in 2007.

      In it was her son, Chester, a smiling, laughing toddler in a plaid shirt and blue vest.

      "I hate to be the one to say it, but even Charlie was lovable when he was 4 years old. He was kind and whimsical and curious," Karl Rhines said. "My parents loved Charlie, and they thought he was a good kid."

      (source: The Argus Leader)
      A uninformed opponent is a dangerous opponent.

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